The corals receive their coloration from the ZOOXANTHELLAE living within their tissues. Ocean Acidification: Due to rise in carbon dioxide levels, oceans absorb more carbon dioxide. Corals grow very slowly - some grow only about 3-20mm per year. You will be learning about the conditions for growth, formation, bleaching and world distribution. This is why corals don’t live in areas where rivers drain fresh water into the ocean (“estuaries”). Coral reefs need clean water to thrive. Corals need saltwater to survive and require a certain balance in the ratio of salt to water. The coral reef are natural barriers to storm surges, particularly in regions that are susceptible to hurricanes. Created by the erosive force of waves and currents against limestone and animal shells, as well as by the grinding teeth of certain fish, coral sand gets trapped in openings along the reef. ( Log Out /  Your email address will not be published. They support fish stocks on which some 500 million people are dependent globally. Zooxanthellae live symbiotically within the polyps. About Great Barrier Reef. Importance of Corals This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 3 times. Sensitive habitats can be destroyed or disturbed by the dredging of deep-water channels or marinas, and through the dumping of waste materials. 1. Coral sand is one main player. This explains why coral reefs are generally absent on western coast of the continent. They are an integral part of many cultures and our natural heritage. It is due to the subtropical climatic conditions, there are a very few coral reefs in India. Prior to the 1980s, most mass coral moralities were related to non-thermal disturbances such as storms, aerial exposures during extreme low tides, and Acanthaster outbreaks. The conditions favor localised heating and high ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nearly all of the world’s major coral reef regions (Caribbean/ western Atlantic, eastern Pacific, central and western Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Gulf, Red Sea) experienced some degree of coral bleaching and mortality during the 1980s. Reefs act as natural barriers to shorelines, protecting them from the effects of moving water. From litter to waste oil, pollution is damaging reefs worldwide. When coral polyps are too hot, they expel their zooxanthellae. The coral species that build coral reefs are known as hermatypic or"hard" corals because they extract calcium carbonate from seawater to create a hard, durable exoskeleton that protects their soft, sac-like bodies. Sediment and plankton can cloud water, which decreases the amount of sunlight that reaches the zooxanthellae. The corals can feed by day through. The condition virtually limits the areal distribution of corals to the tropical, and sub-tropical zones. Recent research has revealed that corals that are consistently exposed to low levels of stress may develop some kind of resistance to bleaching. & does not flourish in cold currents. not falling below 20*C approx. 2 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 2 Years from the date of purchase. Bleaching events occur during sudden temperature drops accompanying intense upwelling episodes [El-Nino], seasonal cold-air outbreaks. In contrast, many of the coral bleaching events observed in the 1980s occurred over large geographic regions and at all depths. Change ), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), About: Emergency use authorisation (EUA) or Emergency License. Conditions Required for Healthy Growth of Coral Reef. 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